Use of the grid

Updated: 10.01.2019

Author: Boris Valach

Access to the grid is granted based on either a transmission and access agreement or a distribution and access agreement (§ 3 par. 1 Decree No. 24/2013). The competent transmission or distribution grid operator is obliged to enter into such an agreement and to purchase the electricity as specified in the agreement (§ 5 par. 1 in conjunction with § 7 par. 1 Decree No. 24/2013).

Renewable energy producers are entitled to the priority transmission and distribution of electricity if they meet the conditions of support set out in § 3 RES Act, if their plants meet the grid operator's technical requirements pursuant to a separate regulation (§ 19 Energy Act) and if the secure and reliable operation of the grid can be ensured (§ 4 par. 1 Letter a RES Act).


Process flow

  • Application. First, a plant operator applies to the grid operator for a grid  agreement (an operator of small renewable installations up to 10 kW shall only submit a notification of the connection to the distribution system) (§ 5 par. 1 in conjunction with par. 5 Decree No. 24/2013; § 4a par. 2 Letter b RES Act).
  • Agreement. Then, the plant operator and the competent transmission or distribution system operator conclude a transmission and access agreement or a distribution and access agreement (§ 3 par. 1 Decree No. 24/2013 of ÚRSO). This agreement sets out the conditions for the use of the grid by the plant operator (§ 5 par. 1 in conjunction with par. 5 Decree No. 24/2013).


If the plant complies with the technical requirements and the terms and conditions, the grid operator shall connect it to its grid within 5 work days (§ 5 par. 8 Decree No. 24/2013 ).  The distribution grid operator shall receive the application for conclusion of the distribution and access agreement at least 21 days prior to the start of distribution. If the applicant fails to submit the application in time, the distribution grid operator may refuse distribution to the day requested (§ 7 par. 3 Decree No. 24/2013).

Priority to renewable energy

  • Priority to renewable energy
  • Non-discrimination

Electricity from renewable energy sources must be given priority transmission and distribution (§ 4 par. 1 Letter a RES Act). Grid operators with more than 100,000 customers (Regional Distribution System Operators) are obliged to offtake the electricity from renewable energy sources for the price of electricity for losses (§ 3 par. 1 Letter b RES Act in conjunction with § 2 Letter b No. 25 Energy Act).


The grid operator is entitled to limit or interrupt the operation of its grid to an indefinite extent and for an indefinite period without being obliged to pay damages unless the damage was caused by the grid operator itself (§ 20 par. 1 in conjunction with par. 8 Energy Act). This applies in the following cases (§ 20 par. 1 Letter a-f Energy Act):

  • emergency and crisis situations,
  • measures of economic mobilization,
  • accidents at installations for the production, transmission and distribution of electricity,
  • threats to safety and reliability of the grid,
  • energy shortages,
  • terrorist acts.

The grid operator is obliged to give notice of forthcoming limitations and interruptions and their approximate duration to electricity suppliers at least 15 days in advance (§ 7 par. 6 Decree No. 24/2013).

The distribution system operator shall publish on its website information about capacity limits for electricity or its interruption (§ 7 par. 5 Decree No. 24/2013). Restrictive measures in the electricity sector are declared and recalled by the transmission system operator in the public mass media and via means of the dispatch management (§ 20 par. 5 Energy Act).

Distribution of costs

Plant operator

The costs of grid use are recovered through the charges for use paid by those electricity market participants (e.g. plant operators) who have entered into a distribution and access agreement. The payments for access to the transmission system and transmission of electricity are included in the price for electricity distribution (§ 7 par. 4 Decree No. 24/2013).


Further information

  • Slovenská organizácia pre obnoviteľné zdroje energie, n.o. – Slovak Renewable EnergyE Agency (SK REA), NPO
  • +42 1 905 744 034
  • SKREA website
  • info(at)

Basic information on legal sources