Connection to the grid

Updated: 23.01.2019

Author: Ivana Naydenova

A facility can be connected to the distribution or transmission system after the consent of the DSO or the TSO. The consent has to be issued, if there are no technical constraints in the transmission or distribution system and if the devices and installations of the facility comply with the general and technical requirements provided by the law (Art. 141 Energy Law). The Regulatory Energy Agency approved a methodology for the setting of prices, terms and conditions for the connection to the transmission and distribution systems for electricity (Art. 39 § 1 Nr. 1 Energy Law) and approved charges for the costs for the connection to the transmission and distribution systems for electricity (Art. 40 § 1 Nr. 4 Energy Law).


Process flow

In general, the procedure for the connection to the grid works as follows:

Transmission Grid

The specific requirements for the connection to the Transmission Grid are outlined in the Transmission Grid Code. The TSO prepared several documents, which establish the required approvals in the connection procedure:

  • Opinion on connection (Art. 57 Transmission Grid Code): The TSO evaluates on the request of the competent Ministry, whether a connection is possible from its point of view.
  • Consent for connection (Art. 58 Transmission Grid Code): This consent specifically includes requirements for the connection, such as the location, technical conditions, the contractual period and a cost assessment for the connection (see also Art. 143 Energy Law). The construction of new connection points to the transmission grid needs the approval by the TSO. A Connection Report examining the technical requirements described in Art. 66 Transmission Grid Code builds the ground for the decision of the TSO (Art. 61 Transmission Grid Code).
  • Project documentation approval (Art. 61 Transmission Grid Code): The TSO needs to approve the project with respect to its investment plan and the technical realisation.
  • Interim connection permit (Art. 62 Transmission Grid Code): The system user can request an interim connection permit that is valid during the trial operation of the facility. 

Distribution Grid

The Distribution Grid Code foresees corresponding provisions for the connection of small power plants (not exceeding 10 kVA, Art. 48 § 2), such as the technical requirements (Art. 28 and 35 et seq.), protection measures (Art. 32) or the manner and the type of connection (Art. 29).

The procedure is described in Art. 57 Distribution Grid Code (for explanations see the description above analogously):

  • Opinion on Connection (Art. 58 Distribution Grid Code) 
  • Consent for Connection (Art. 41 § 1 Distribution Grid Code): Pursuant to Art. 40 § 1 Distribution Grid Code the DSO adopted the Procedure for the Issuance of Documents for the Connection of Small Power Plants to the Distribution Network (“Procedura za izdavanje dokumenata za priključenje malih elektrana na distributivnu mrežu”), which defines the content of the request for the Consent for Connection (Art. 40) in detail. It can be found online:
  • Prerequisites for the connection are issued by the DSO (Art. 60 Distribution Grid Code).
  • Before connecting the facility, the system user needs to have already concluded an electricity supply contract and a power purchase agreement (Art. 57 § 6 Distribution Grid Code).

Contract on Connection

Eventually the TSO/DSO concludes a Contract for Connection (TSO: Art. 47 Transmission Grid Code; DSO: Art. 45 Distribution Grid Code) with the plant operator in order to regulate the technical, legal and economic conditions, future ownership relations as well as the relations between the contracting parties concerning the operation and the maintenance of the power plant (Art 7 § 2 Nr. 47 Market Rules). Art. 144 § 2 Energy Law lays down a list of 14 concrete elements that need to be included therein (e.g. technical characteristics of the facilities, quality of the electricity generation, safety and protection measures, liability issues, the duration of the contract, etc.).


Transmission System Operator/Distribution System Operator:

The TSO and the DSO have to decide about the request for connection for general projects within 30 days and for more complex facilities within 120 days after it’s receipt (Art. 142 §§ 2, 3 Energy Law and Art. 61 Transmission Grid Code resp. Art. 41 § 1 Distribution Grid Code).

If all requirements are met, the TSO/DSO has to connect the facility within 30 days (Art. 12 Methodology for the determination of prices, terms and conditions for the connection to the distribution system for electricity).

Plant Operator:

The plant operator can lodge a complaint against the decision on the Consent for Connection within 15 days after its receipt (Art. 142 § 5 Energy Law).

Obligation to inform

Mutual notification obligations are laid down in the Connection Contract between the TSO/DSO and the plant operator (Art. 144 § 2 Nr. 9 Energy Law).

Priority to renewable energy

  • Priority to renewable energy
  • Non-discrimination

Facilities for the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources are given priority by the transmission or distribution system operator, if the technical conditions permit (Art. 151 Energy Law).

Distribution of costs


Pursuant to Art. 146 Energy Law the system user bears all the costs and pays the connection charges to the transmission or distribution system operator (see also Art. 57 § 8 Distribution Grid Code and Art. 28 Transmission Grid Code). The particular amount is calculated according to the (two) Methodologies for the determination of prices, terms and conditions for the connection to the (transmission/distribution) system for electricity (Art. 88 § 1 Nr. 9 Energy Law in connection with Art. 39 § 1 Nr. 1 Energy Law).

Moreover, the system user has to pay the construction of the required infrastructure, if due to technical constraints it is not possible to connect the power plant to the transmission or distribution system (Art. 149 Energy Law). This newly built infrastructure however becomes a part of the existing grid and has to be compensated by the TSO/DSO after having been handed over (Art. 149 § 7 Energy Law).

Grid operator

If necessary, the TSO/DSO has to bear the costs of any development of system studies and the preparation of connection reports (Art. 142 § 4 Energy Law).


Further information

  • Crnogorski elektroprenosni sistem AD (CGES) – Montenegrin Transmission System Operator
  • +382 20/40 76-82
  • CGES website