Germany: Overall Summary
In Germany, electricity from renewable sources is supported through a feed-in tariff. The criteria for eligibility and the tariff levels are set out in the Act on Granting Priority to Renewable Energy Sources (EEG). According to this Act, operators of renewable energy plants are statutorily entitled against the grid operator to payments for electricity exported to the grid. The EEG also introduced the so-called market premium and the flexibility premium for plant operators who directly sell their electricity from renewable sources. Moreover, low interest loans for investments in new plants are provided for by different KfW-Programmes.
In Germany, the Guidelines for the support of RES-H set out the Market Incentive Programme (MAP), stipulating support schemes for the promotion of heat produced from renewable energy. BAFA is providing investment support and KfW offers low-interest loans.
The main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system. Furthermore, some types of biofuels are supported through fiscal regulation.
Plants for the generation of electricity from renewable sources shall be given priority connection to the grid. Furthermore, grid operators are obliged to give priority to electricity from renewable sources when purchasing and transmitting electricity. Moreover, those interested in feeding in electricity may demand that the grid operator expands his grid.
Germany provides policies for the promotion of renewable energy sources covering training, certification and research programmes, a self-commitment of public authorities, the support of district heating networks and the introduction of building obligations regarding the use of heat produced from renewable energy.